Gastroesophageal Acidity Visual Aids: Full Illustrated 2016

Gastroesophageal Acidity Visual Aids
Full Illustrated
Table of Contents
Acid reflux
Causes
SYMPTOMS
Anatomy of the digestive system
Esophagus and stomach
Parietal cell acid secretion
Defense mechanisms of the gastric mucosa

Acid reflux
Causes
• Inefficient antireflux barrier.
• Volume and composition of gastric content.
• Impaired peristaltic function.
• Damaging capacity of acid reflux content.
• Damage resistance and repair capacity of mucosa.

SYMPTOMS
Pyrosis: the most common symptom, pyrosis is a scorching pain in the stomach and the esophagus that reaches into the larynx. It typically occurs one hour after eating. It is body posture-related and worsens when lying in bed, or after eating foods with a high fat content.
Regurgitation: it is gastroesophageal reflux into the mouth. It may be body posture-related.
Odynophagia: it is the painful swallowing that occurs when a warm, either hot or acid food bolus, goes through the inflamed mucosa.
Dysphagia: when presenting without stenosis, esophagitis is severe, although it usually subsides if properly treated. If it results from stenosis, it becomes constant and progressive.
Anatomy of the digestive system
Esophagus and stomach
Parietal cell acid secretion
The distention of the walls of the stomach produces an acetylcholine-mediated reflex response, stimulating parietal cells and G cells. Certain impulses originating in the central nervous system are transmitted via the acetylcholine through the cholinergic fibers, acting both on hydrochloric acid-releasing parietal cells and on gastrin-releasing G cells.
Defense mechanisms of the gastric mucosa
Different mechanisms help the stomach preserve the integrity of its mucosa, among which we find: mucus production, bicarbonate (HCO3-) secretion, local blood flow, cell renewal, and the production of certain prostaglandins (e.g. PGE2). A deficit in one of these factors can make it easier for the mucosa of the stomach to become damaged.

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